Slurm supports job preemption, the act of stopping one or more "low-priority" jobs to let a "high-priority" job run. Job preemption is implemented as a variation of Slurm's Gang Scheduling logic. When a high-priority job has been allocated resources that have already been allocated to one or more low priority jobs, the low priority job(s) are preempted. The low priority job(s) can resume once the high priority job completes. Alternately, the low priority job(s) can be requeued and started using other resources if so configured in newer versions of Slurm.
The job's partition priority or its Quality Of Service (QOS) can be used to identify which jobs can preempt or be preempted by other jobs. Slurm offers the ability to configure the preemption mechanism used on a per partition or per QOS basis. For example, jobs in a low priority queue may get requeued, while jobs in a medium priority queue may get suspended.
There are several important configuration parameters relating to preemption:
- SelectType: Slurm job preemption logic supports nodes allocated by the select/linear plugin, socket/core/CPU resources allocated by the select/cons_res plugin or select/cray for Cray systems without ALPS.
SelectTypeParameter: Since resources may be getting over-allocated
with jobs (suspended jobs remain in memory), the resource selection
plugin should be configured to track the amount of memory used by each job to
ensure that memory page swapping does not occur. When select/linear is
chosen, we recommend setting SelectTypeParameter=CR_Memory. When
select/cons_res is chosen, we recommend including Memory as a resource
NOTE: Unless PreemptMode=SUSPEND,GANG these memory management parameters are not critical.
DefMemPerCPU: Since job requests may not explicitly specify
a memory requirement, we also recommend configuring
DefMemPerCPU (default memory per allocated CPU) or
DefMemPerNode (default memory per allocated node).
It may also be desirable to configure
MaxMemPerCPU (maximum memory per allocated CPU) or
MaxMemPerNode (maximum memory per allocated node) in slurm.conf.
Users can use the --mem or --mem-per-cpu option
at job submission time to specify their memory requirements.
NOTE: Unless PreemptMode=SUSPEND,GANG these memory management parameters are not critical.
- GraceTime: Specifies a time period for a job to execute after it is selected to be preempted. This option can be specified by partition or QOS using the slurm.conf file or database respectively. This option is only honored if PreemptMode=CANCEL. The GraceTime is specified in seconds and the default value is zero, which results in no preemption delay. Once a job has been selected for preemption, its end time is set to the current time plus GraceTime. The job is immediately sent SIGCONT and SIGTERM signals in order to provide notification of its imminent termination. This is followed by the SIGCONT, SIGTERM and SIGKILL signal sequence upon reaching its new end time.
JobAcctGatherType and JobAcctGatherFrequency: The "maximum data segment
size" and "maximum virtual memory size" system limits will be configured for
each job to ensure that the job does not exceed its requested amount of memory.
If you wish to enable additional enforcement of memory limits, configure job
accounting with the JobAcctGatherType and JobAcctGatherFrequency
parameters. When accounting is enabled and a job exceeds its configured memory
limits, it will be canceled in order to prevent it from adversely affecting
other jobs sharing the same resources.
NOTE: Unless PreemptMode=SUSPEND,GANG these memory management parameters are not critical.
PreemptMode: Specifies the mechanism used to preempt low priority jobs.
The PreemptMode should be specified for the cluster as a whole, although
different values can be configured on each partition when
PreemptType=preempt/partition_prio. Note that when specified
on a partition, a compatible mode must also be specified system-wide;
specifically if a PreemptMode is set to SUSPEND for any partition, then
the system-wide PreemptMode must include the GANG and SUSPEND parameters so the
module responsible for resuming jobs executes.
Configure to CANCEL, CHECKPOINT,
SUSPEND or REQUEUE depending on the desired action for low
The GANG option must also be specified if gang scheduling is desired
or a PreemptMode of SUSPEND is used for any jobs.
- A value of CANCEL will always cancel the job.
- A value of CHECKPOINT will checkpoint (if possible) or kill low priority jobs. Checkpointed jobs are not automatically restarted.
- A value of REQUEUE will requeue (if possible) or kill low priority jobs. Requeued jobs are permitted to be restarted on different resources.
- A value of SUSPEND will suspend and resume jobs. If PreemptType=preempt/partition_prio is configured then a value of SUSPEND will suspend and automatically resume the low priority jobs. If PreemptType=preempt/qos is configured, then the jobs sharing resources will always time slice rather than one job remaining suspended. The SUSPEND option must be used with the GANG option (e.g. "PreemptMode=SUSPEND,GANG").
- A value of GANG may be used with any of the above values and will execute a module responsible for resuming jobs previously suspended for either gang scheduling or job preemption with suspension.
PreemptType: Configure the desired mechanism used to identify
which jobs can preempt other jobs.
- preempt/none indicates that jobs will not preempt each other (default).
- preempt/partition_prio indicates that jobs from one partition can preempt jobs from lower priority partitions.
- preempt/qos indicates that jobs from one Quality Of Service (QOS) can preempt jobs from a lower QOS. These jobs can be in the same partition or different partitions. PreemptMode must be set to CANCEL, CHECKPOINT, REQUEUE or SUSPEND. This option requires the use of a database identifying available QOS and their preemption rules. This option is not compatible with PreemptMode=OFF and PreemptMode=SUSPEND is only supported by the select/cons_res plugin.
- PreemptExemptTime: Specifies minimum run time of jobs before they are considered for preemption. Unlike GraceTime, this is honored for all values of PreemptMode. It is specified as a time string: A time of -1 disables the option, equivalent to 0. Acceptable time formats include "minutes", "minutes:seconds", "hours:minutes:seconds", "days\-hours", "days\-hours:minutes", and "days\-hours:minutes:seconds". PreemptEligibleTime is shown in the output of "scontrol show job <job id>"
- PriorityTier: Configure the partition's PriorityTier setting relative to other partitions to control the preemptive behavior when PreemptType=preempt/partition_prio. This option is not relevant if PreemptType=preempt/qos. If two jobs from two different partitions are allocated to the same resources, the job in the partition with the greater PriorityTier value will preempt the job in the partition with the lesser PriorityTier value. If the PriorityTier values of the two partitions are equal then no preemption will occur. The default PriorityTier value is 1.
OverSubscribe: Configure the partition's OverSubscribe setting to
FORCE for all partitions in which job preemption using a suspend/resume
mechanism is used or NO otherwise.
The FORCE option supports an additional parameter that controls
how many jobs can oversubscribe a compute resource (FORCE[:max_share]). By default the
max_share value is 4. In order to preempt jobs (and not gang schedule them),
always set max_share to 1. To allow up to 2 jobs from this partition to be
allocated to a common resource (and gang scheduled), set
NOTE: PreemptType=QOS will permit one additional job to be run on the partition if started due to job preemption. For example, a configuration of OverSubscribe=FORCE:1 will only permit one job per resources normally, but a second job can be started if done so through preemption based upon QOS. The use of PreemptType=QOS and PreemptType=Suspend only applies with SelectType=cons_res in versions 18.08 and older or with SelectType=cons_tres in version 19.05.
To enable preemption after making the configuration changes described above, restart Slurm if it is already running. Any change to the plugin settings in Slurm requires a full restart of the daemons. If you just change the partition PriorityTier or OverSubscribe setting, this can be updated with scontrol reconfig.
If a job request restricts Slurm's ability to run jobs from multiple users or accounts on a node by using the "--exclusive=user" or "--exclusive=mcs" job options, that may prevent preemption of jobs to start higher priority jobs. If preemption is used, it is generally advisable to disable the "--exclusive=user" and "--exclusive=mcs" job options by using a job_submit plugin (set the value of "shared" to "NO_VAL16").
Preemption Design and Operation
The select plugin will identify resources where a pending job can begin execution. When PreemptMode is configured to CANCEL, CHECKPOINT, SUSPEND or REQUEUE, the select plugin will also preempt running jobs as needed to initiate the pending job. When PreemptMode=SUSPEND,GANG the select plugin will initiate the pending job and rely upon the gang scheduling logic to perform job suspend and resume as described below.
The select plugin is passed an ordered list of preemptable jobs to consider for each pending job which is a candidate to start. This list is sorted by either:
- QOS priority,
- Partition priority and job size (to favor preempting smaller jobs), or
- Job start time (with SchedulerParameters=preempt_youngest_first).
The select plugin will determine if the pending job can start without preempting any jobs and if so, starts the job using available resources. Otherwise, the select plugin will simulate the preemption of each job in the priority ordered list and test if the job can be started after each preemption. Once the job can be started, the higher priority jobs in the preemption queue will not be considered, but the jobs to be preempted in the original list may be sub-optimal. For example, to start an 8 node job, the ordered preemption candidates may be 2 node, 4 node and 8 node. Preempting all three jobs would allow the pending job to start, but by reording the preemption candidates it is possible to start the pending job after preempting only one job. To address this issue, the preemption candidates are re-ordered with the final job requiring preemption placed first in the list and all of the other jobs to be preempted ordered by the number of nodes in their allocation which overlap the resources selected for the pending job. In the example above, the 8 node job would be moved to the first position in the list. The process of simulating the preemption of each job in the priority ordered list will then be repeated for the final decision of which jobs to preempt. This two stage process may preempt jobs which are not strictly in preemption priority order, but fewer jobs will be preempted than otherwise required. See the SchedulerParameters configuration parameter options of preempt_reorder_count and preempt_strict_order for preemption tuning parameters.
When enabled, the gang scheduling logic (which is also supports job preemption) keeps track of the resources allocated to all jobs. For each partition an "active bitmap" is maintained that tracks all concurrently running jobs in the Slurm cluster. Each partition also maintains a job list for that partition, and a list of "shadow" jobs. The "shadow" jobs are high priority job allocations that "cast shadows" on the active bitmaps of the low priority jobs. Jobs caught in these "shadows" will be preempted.
Each time a new job is allocated to resources in a partition and begins running, the gang scheduler adds a "shadow" of this job to all lower priority partitions. The active bitmap of these lower priority partitions are then rebuilt, with the shadow jobs added first. Any existing jobs that were replaced by one or more "shadow" jobs are suspended (preempted). Conversely, when a high priority running job completes, it's "shadow" goes away and the active bitmaps of the lower priority partitions are rebuilt to see if any suspended jobs can be resumed.
The gang scheduler plugin is designed to be reactive to the resource allocation decisions made by the "select" plugins. The "select" plugins have been enhanced to recognize when job preemption has been configured, and to factor in the priority of each partition when selecting resources for a job. When choosing resources for each job, the selector avoids resources that are in use by other jobs (unless sharing has been configured, in which case it does some load-balancing). However, when job preemption is enabled, the select plugins may choose resources that are already in use by jobs from partitions with a lower priority setting, even when sharing is disabled in those partitions.
This leaves the gang scheduler in charge of controlling which jobs should run on the over-allocated resources. If PreemptMode=SUSPEND, jobs are suspended using the same internal functions that support scontrol suspend and scontrol resume. A good way to observe the operation of the gang scheduler is by running squeue -i<time> in a terminal window.
Limitations of Preemption During Backfill Scheduling
For performance reasons, the backfill scheduler reserves whole nodes for jobs, not partial nodes. If during backfill scheduling a job preempts one or more other jobs, the whole nodes for those preempted jobs are reserved for the preemptor job, even if the preemptor job requested fewer resources than that. These reserved nodes aren't available to other jobs during that backfill cycle, even if the other jobs could fit on the nodes. Therefore, jobs may preempt more resources during a single backfill iteration than they requested.
A Simple Example
The following example is configured with select/linear and PreemptMode=SUSPEND,GANG. This example takes place on a cluster of 5 nodes:
[user@n16 ~]$ sinfo PARTITION AVAIL TIMELIMIT NODES STATE NODELIST active* up infinite 5 idle n[12-16] hipri up infinite 5 idle n[12-16]
Here are the Partition settings:
[user@n16 ~]$ grep PartitionName /shared/slurm/slurm.conf PartitionName=DEFAULT OverSubscribe=FORCE:1 Nodes=n[12-16] PartitionName=active PriorityTier=1 Default=YES PartitionName=hipri PriorityTier=2
The runit.pl script launches a simple load-generating app that runs for the given number of seconds. Submit 5 single-node runit.pl jobs to run on all nodes:
[user@n16 ~]$ sbatch -N1 ./runit.pl 300 sbatch: Submitted batch job 485 [user@n16 ~]$ sbatch -N1 ./runit.pl 300 sbatch: Submitted batch job 486 [user@n16 ~]$ sbatch -N1 ./runit.pl 300 sbatch: Submitted batch job 487 [user@n16 ~]$ sbatch -N1 ./runit.pl 300 sbatch: Submitted batch job 488 [user@n16 ~]$ sbatch -N1 ./runit.pl 300 sbatch: Submitted batch job 489 [user@n16 ~]$ squeue -Si JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST 485 active runit.pl user R 0:06 1 n12 486 active runit.pl user R 0:06 1 n13 487 active runit.pl user R 0:05 1 n14 488 active runit.pl user R 0:05 1 n15 489 active runit.pl user R 0:04 1 n16
Now submit a short-running 3-node job to the hipri partition:
[user@n16 ~]$ sbatch -N3 -p hipri ./runit.pl 30 sbatch: Submitted batch job 490 [user@n16 ~]$ squeue -Si JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST 485 active runit.pl user S 0:27 1 n12 486 active runit.pl user S 0:27 1 n13 487 active runit.pl user S 0:26 1 n14 488 active runit.pl user R 0:29 1 n15 489 active runit.pl user R 0:28 1 n16 490 hipri runit.pl user R 0:03 3 n[12-14]
Job 490 in the hipri partition preempted jobs 485, 486, and 487 from the active partition. Jobs 488 and 489 in the active partition remained running.
This state persisted until job 490 completed, at which point the preempted jobs were resumed:
[user@n16 ~]$ squeue JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST 485 active runit.pl user R 0:30 1 n12 486 active runit.pl user R 0:30 1 n13 487 active runit.pl user R 0:29 1 n14 488 active runit.pl user R 0:59 1 n15 489 active runit.pl user R 0:58 1 n16
In this example we have three different partitions using three different job preemption mechanisms.
# Excerpt from slurm.conf PartitionName=low Nodes=linux Default=YES OverSubscribe=NO PriorityTier=10 PreemptMode=requeue PartitionName=med Nodes=linux Default=NO OverSubscribe=FORCE:1 PriorityTier=20 PreemptMode=suspend PartitionName=hi Nodes=linux Default=NO OverSubscribe=FORCE:1 PriorityTier=30 PreemptMode=off
$ sbatch tmp Submitted batch job 94 $ sbatch -p med tmp Submitted batch job 95 $ sbatch -p hi tmp Submitted batch job 96 $ squeue JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST(REASON) 96 hi tmp moe R 0:04 1 linux 94 low tmp moe PD 0:00 1 (Resources) 95 med tmp moe S 0:02 1 linux (after job 96 completes) $ squeue JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST(REASON) 94 low tmp moe PD 0:00 1 (Resources) 95 med tmp moe R 0:24 1 linux
In this example we have one partition on which we want to execute only one job per resource (e.g. core) at a time except when a job submitted to the partition from a high priority Quality Of Service (QOS) is submitted. In that case, we want that second high priority job to be started and be gang scheduled with the other jobs on overlapping resources.
# Excerpt from slurm.conf PreemptMode=Suspend,Gang PreemptType=preempt/qos PartitionName=normal Nodes=linux Default=NO OverSubscribe=FORCE:1
More intelligence in the select plugins: This implementation of preemption relies on intelligent job placement by the select plugins.
Take the following example:
[user@n8 ~]$ sinfo PARTITION AVAIL TIMELIMIT NODES STATE NODELIST active* up infinite 5 idle n[1-5] hipri up infinite 5 idle n[1-5] [user@n8 ~]$ sbatch -N1 -n2 ./sleepme 60 sbatch: Submitted batch job 17 [user@n8 ~]$ sbatch -N1 -n2 ./sleepme 60 sbatch: Submitted batch job 18 [user@n8 ~]$ sbatch -N1 -n2 ./sleepme 60 sbatch: Submitted batch job 19 [user@n8 ~]$ squeue JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST(REASON) 17 active sleepme cholmes R 0:03 1 n1 18 active sleepme cholmes R 0:03 1 n2 19 active sleepme cholmes R 0:02 1 n3 [user@n8 ~]$ sbatch -N3 -n6 -p hipri ./sleepme 20 sbatch: Submitted batch job 20 [user@n8 ~]$ squeue -Si JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST(REASON) 17 active sleepme cholmes S 0:16 1 n1 18 active sleepme cholmes S 0:16 1 n2 19 active sleepme cholmes S 0:15 1 n3 20 hipri sleepme cholmes R 0:03 3 n[1-3] [user@n8 ~]$ sinfo PARTITION AVAIL TIMELIMIT NODES STATE NODELIST active* up infinite 3 alloc n[1-3] active* up infinite 2 idle n[4-5] hipri up infinite 3 alloc n[1-3] hipri up infinite 2 idle n[4-5]
It would be more ideal if the "hipri" job were placed on nodes n[3-5], which would allow jobs 17 and 18 to continue running. However, a new "intelligent" algorithm would have to include factors such as job size and required nodes in order to support ideal placements such as this, which can quickly complicate the design. Any and all help is welcome here!
Last modified 1 April 2019